Mushrooms grow on a variety of culture media and on different agar formulas, both natural and synthetic, depending on the organism to be cultivated and the purpose of the cultivation. Synthetic media are often expensive and time-consuming in preparation hence they are not commonly used for routine purposes in mushroom laboratories.
(A). PDA (potato dextrose agar), is the simplest and the most popular medium for growing mycelia of most cultivated mushrooms. It can be purchased commercially as ready mixed powder which can be used directly to make the medium in the laboratory, with a concentration of 20gm/1 litre of distilled water.
(B). Alternatively, it can be prepared in the laboratory with the following ingredients: Potato, diced – 200 gm (1/5kg); Dextrose – 20 gm; Powdered agar or agar bars – 20gm; Water – 1 litre. Procedure: Peeled potatoes are washed, weighed, and cut into cubes. They are boiled in a casserole with at least one litre of water until they become soft (around 15 minutes). The potatoes are removed and water is added to the broth to make exactly 1 litre. The broth is returned to the casserole, and dextrose and the agar added. The solution is heated and stirred occasionally until the agar is melted. The hot solution is then poured into clear flat bottles filling to about 2.5cm from the bottom. When using test tubes for the stock cultures, they are filled with at least 10ml of the liquid agar solution. The bottles or test tubes are plugged with cotton wool. When Petri dishes are available and are used to produce mycelial colonies, the solution can be poured into the dishes to form a layer on the bottom.
(C). A ready-made MEA (malt extract agar) powder is also available commercially. The recommended amount of powder (20gm) is mixed with 1 litre of water, then melted and sterilised. One percent peptone or 0.5% yeast may be added for faster mycelia growth for both PDA and MEA.

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Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) occurs naturally in the soil and on plants. However, in the field, Bt is usually applied as a microbial insecticide. There are different varieties of Bt. Each Bt variety produces a protein that is toxic to specific groups of insects.
Some of the varieties of Bt with some of their target insect groups are:
Bt var. aizawai :Caterpillars, including diamondback moth
Bt var. kurstaki :Caterpillars
Bt var. tenebrionis : Colorado potato beetle, elm leaf beetle
Bt var. israelensis Mosquito, black fly and fungus gnat larvae
Formulations of Bt var. kurstaki are available for the control of many caterpillar pests of vegetables. Some of the Bt brand names are: Dipel, Javelin, Biobit, MVP, Xentari, Agree
Mode of action and symptoms
The toxin inside the bacterium is only effective when eaten in sufficient quantity by the target insect. The Bt is sprayed over the leaves and when the insect eats the leaves, it will also eat the Bt. The toxin damages and paralyzes the gut of the insect. The toxin can only affect insects that have a specific gut structure, that’s why Bt is specific for certain insect groups.
Affected larvae become inactive, stop feeding and die from the combination of starvation and damage of the gut by the toxins of the bacterium. The larva may have a watery excrement and the head capsule may appear to be overly large for the body size. The larva becomes soft and dies usually within days or a week. The body turns brownish-black as it decomposes.
Effectiveness
To obtain effective control of the caterpillars, it is essential to apply Bt at the correct target species, at the susceptible stage of development, in the right concentration, at the correct temperature and before insects bore into the plants where they are protected. Young larvae are usually most susceptible. Caterpillars have to eat sufficient quantities of Bt in order to be affected and die. When they eat just a little Bt, they may not die but their growth is retarded.
Environmental condition where Bt shows it’s effective role:
1) Bt only works at temperatures above 15°C. Bt formulations are deactivated by sunlight.
2) Rain or overhead irrigation can also reduce effectiveness by washing Bt from the leaves.

Conservation
Bt formulations are applied like an insecticide. The Bt formulations become inactive after one to three days. That means the bacterium inside the formulation is dead. Bt spores do not usually spread to other insects or cause disease outbreaks on their own. Therefore, conservation methods, as is important for predators and parasitoids, are not relevant for Bt.

Mountains are rich store house of biodiversity, mineral, forest and water yet mountain people are among the world poorest and hungriest. It’ s how and what are cause behind it why there is food insecurity in mountain region it’s a great question in modern era .The flame in candle gives light everywhere but in its surface it remain in dark. There are many reasons behind it.
The soaring food prices due to the combination of high level of chronic hunger and a dependence on imports of grain and petroleum products have especially forced the people in developing and transition countries towards hunger and food insecurity .The mountain region are mostly geographically backward than other region as in the sense that high investment is required for the certain development in that region. The frequently occurring natural climates, political action, disease in mountain region makes people insecure of the food. The nutrient status indicate that mountain population suffer from the malnutrition and micro nutrient due to the insecurity of food .There observe the scarce of the iodine content in the mountain region as a result of the food insecurity. Hunger is consequences not only of food shortages but of inadequate choices .People have higher choice the thought of food secure eating Daal-Bhat create major problem in Nepal .The food security not only deal with amount and choices, if the nutrient daily requiredment for a certain person to sustain their health fulfill up their the food is secure for that people .The problem of food insecurity is further compounded with blind imitation of modern life style many traditional mountain foods become stigamated as ‘food of the poor’ that large insecurity.
As mentioned there are the many cause behind the food insecurity in the mountain region, main measures for it’s development are sustainable approaches as livestock production, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, tourism and micro hydropower in this region. The agricultural policy of Nepal also deals with the utilization for the local resources for sustaining the livelihood of the local people. On the basis of the pocket package area the mountain region is selected as suitable area for livestock and medicinal production. In the sense the integrated agricultural practices in the mountain region makes easier to secure food for mountainous people.

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Food security and sustainable agricultural production in mountains will depend on farming communities employing affordable, environmentally friendly methods for conserving and replenishing soil fertility. An example of this is the Sustainable Soil Management Project in the midhills of Nepal. The tourism is another source to sustain livelihood in the mountain region. The simple example we can take of Darjeeling and Sikkim it’s a nearer region from the Nepal eastern territory .In this area whole total economy is based on the tourism .In Nepal also there are large spot where tourism can be flourished up where large number of people can be engaged .As this may be a way to sustained livelihood by securing the food. The microhydropower development is another alternative source to sustain the economy of mountain region .As high speed flow of the water from the region may be means for the production of electricity.
So after development of sustainable approaches the predicted food insecurity in the mountain region can be controlled and the livelihood of the mountain people can be sustained up.So at last ‘’Discover the resource that eradicate the problem of food insecurity that result happy and healthy life of mountainous people”.

Insects are found in all types of environment and they occupy little more than two thirds of the known species of animals in the world. Insects affect human beings in a number of ways. Many of them fed on all kinds of plants including crop plants, forest trees, medicinal plants and weeds. They also infest the food and other stored products in god owns, bins, storage structures and packages causing huge amount of loss to the stored food and also deterioration of food quality. Insects inflict injury to plants and stored products either directly or indirectly in their attempts to secure food. Insects that cause less than 5 % damage are not considered as pests. The insects which cause damage between 5 – 10% are called minor pests and those that cause damage above 10% are considered as major pests. The insect may be chewing type, biting type, sponging type, sucking type. The insect affect the crop production so for the sustainable used the biopesticide is the best alternative at it has high significant in the farmer level.
Biopesticide as define as the home made pest using the biological resources that is cost effective, environmental sustainable etc. The biopesticide is best source for control of insect as viable for organic production. In the farmer level the biopesticide preparation practise have been launched up by different organization as Secard Nepal and local organization as Care Nepal .For the preparation of the biopesticide, the local cultivated crop can be used as Timur, Ketuki, Neem, Bakaino, Tetepati, Barbari, Ginger, Garlic, Mango leaf etc.
Different materials used for making biopesticide as:
1. Different plant species

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2. Cow urine
3. Ash
4. Preparing drum
5. Partially decomposed dung
The locally available plant parts are cut up into a small part. The small pieces plant part is place in the drum. Normally about 10 kg plant parts, 5 litre urine, 1 kg ash and partially decomposed cow dung .The drum should cover up .After 15 days the biopesticide is prepared up. With the differ in the temperature , the time varies for the preparation of biopesticide. The biopesticide after the formation is taken up and applied in the field.1:4 portions of the biopesticide and water is mixed up and applied in the field .This measure help to control insect in the field sustainably.

Vermicomposting is a simple technology for converting the biodegradable wastages into the organic product with the help of earthworm. In the vermicomposting (Eisena Foetida)earthworm is being used .This convert the wastages into organic manure which have no smell high nutrient content than the normal chemical .It’s eco friendly as there is well decomposed the wastages organic manure and it is used as the alternative of the chemical fertilizer in the field.
Condition for vermicomposting:
• Selected area should be under the shade.
• Selected area should not be logged up
• Good ventilation
• The pit needs to have more surface area than depth (wide and shallow) and it needs to have relatively low sides.
For vermicomposting different materials should be used up as:
• Brick
• Cement
• Sand
• Spade
• Earthworm(Eisena foetida)
• Sieve
• Banana leaf and stem pile
• Partially decomposed dung
• Measuring Tape

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On the basis of the size of the vermicompost pit maintaining the favourable condition the earthworm should be reared .In the farmer level for a simple pit of the 2m *1.5m*1m about 2000 earthworm is required. The pit has been measure up. The brick, cement and sand are used to construct the vermicompost pit. In the lower layer the banana stem pile up as it have high resin content faster decomposition and faster food nutrient for the earthworm. The second layer of the partially decomposed cowdung should be place. The plant residue as degradable wastages should be place in the layer above it again layer of the partially decomposed cowdung is placed up. Then, only the earthworm should be scattered up in the pit. The earthworm will enter through the partially decomposed organic manure and decompose the degradable wastages. There should be watering thrice a week .After 1.5 months the compost is ready to be used in the field .There separation of the earthworm is done through the sieve .The compost material is used up as vermicompost and the earthworm separated up is placed again in the vermicompost pit. The farmer can consume the organic product using vermicompost in field or they could sell up as vermicompost manure.

We move to hospital for check up if certain problem arouses in the body similarly there is veterinary hospital for solving animal health problem .But there is major issue established for the diagnosis of the plant disease. About 25% of the production is lost due to the several insect and the disease exerts in the plants in the different stages of the production.  So, to diagnosis the disease and proper cure and diagnosis disease the plant clinic play vital role.

In the plant clinic, there is participation of the farmers directly with their problem from the field. It is the practical effort to solve the farmer problems. There engaged plant doctors to solve the problem of the farmers .The problem of the farmer exerts in the field are diagnosis in plant clinic program and proper suggestion is suggested by the plant doctors .The focus in the plant clinic is given to the bio pesticides which are environmentally friendly and economically sustainable .SECARD also organized plant clinic program effectively in different part of Nepal. In Nepal, the plant clinic is been organized by DADO but it is not been a factor to solve the farmers problem .There are large number of problem arouses in the plant clinic so that farmer couldn’t get required remedies of their problem. As listed:

  • Farmers hesitate to illustrate their problem arouses in field.
  • The problem may observe in the soil root portion but it may affects the production, the farmer may unable to bring all factor in clinic.
  • Application and dose of the pesticides may differ with the percentage of disease spread or the number of the insects in the field so their required literate farmers which cannot be possible as large group of the illiterate farmer are engaged in agriculture.
  • Plant clinic only helpful for the commercial farming farmer it wouldn’t favour for the for subsistence farmer as for them disease insect in the plant doesn’t play great role as farming is alternative occupation for them .In context of the Nepal large number of the farmers are subsistence in farming in the small plot land large number of crop produced as their needs.
  • There may observe language problem between the plant doctors and farmers.

‘Yarsagumba’ a gift of Nature

Posted: September 18, 2014 in Uncategorized

The mushroom grows between the Api and Namjug mountains – Darchula.The herb is also found around Dolpo near the Annapurna range. These medicinal mushrooms are found between the altitudes of 3200 – 4500 meters. This is near the snow line where the snow melts in the summer. There is usually snow for six months of the year. The mushroom is usually found in the north facing slope of the mountain. The slope of the mountain is usually 5 to 10 degrees. The cordyceps from Dolpa are regarded to be the best ones in the whole world. So, the price and quality is higher than cordyceps found in other places and regions.

One of the most famous medicinal Mushrooms – Yarsagumba or Cordyceps sinensis has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The best high quality Cordyceps grows in the high altitudes of the Himalayas. Cordyceps is used as one of the most sought after natural herbal remedies in the world. The name Yarsagumba derives from the Tibetan language. In Tibetan language Yarsa means seasonal grass and Gumbu means wilted insect. It is also sometimes referred to as Kira Ghas in Nepali. Cordyceps is a fungus that lives on certain caterpillars in the high mountain regions of China. Supplement makers are able to get enough of the product to sell because cordyceps will reproduce in the laboratory.

Cordyceps is used to treat coughs, chronic bronchitis, respiratory disorders, kidney disorders, nighttime urination, male sexual problems, anemia, irregular heartbeat, high cholesterol, liver disorders, dizziness, weakness, ringing in the ears, unwanted weight loss, and opium addiction.

It is also used for strengthening the immune system, improving athletic performance, reducing the effects of aging, promoting longer life, and improving liver function in people with hepatitis B.Some people use cordyceps as a stimulant, a tonic, and an “adaptogen,” which is used to increase energy, enhance stamina, and reduce fatigue.

Yorkers are getting US$ 800 per ounce (35.3 Ounces = 1 Kilograms) for dried Yarsagumba. It means they are getting approx US$ 28240 or NRs 20, 33,280 per kg. (US$ 1 = NRs 72).What a crazy price and crazy fungus lovers!. This really forces me to think many times regarding Nepalese Yarsagumba, market scenario in Nepal and real benefits getting by the real collectors: Collectors from the remote highlands of Nepal.

Introduction:
Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of macrofungi groups. They include both edible/medicinal and poisonous species. However, originally, the word “mushroom” was used for the edible members of macrofungi and “toadstools” for poisonous ones of the “gill” macrofungi. Scientifically the term “toadstool” has no meaning at all and it has been proposed that the term is dropped altogether in order to avoid confusion and the terms edible, medicinal and poisonous mushrooms are used. Mushroom cultivation has been started in Nepal since 2027/28.It belongs to the fungus group. In Nepal different varieties of mushroom we can found. The major cultivar varieties are oyster mushroom, white button, straw mushroom, shitake etc. Oyster and white button varieties are found grown successfully in the Kathmandu valley and Middle Mountain whereas, straw mushroom in terai region and shitake mushroom in High Mountain and Middle Mountain. The oyster production also exerts in the terai region in winter.
Oyster production in Nepal
In Nepal different species of oyster mushroom are found as sajorkaju and ostatas. Straw is main site for the production of oyster mushroom. In wood particle, maize husk also mushroom production can be done. Required temperature for its production is 20-30°c and humidity 80%.It can be produced from chaitra to kartik in 800-1400 metre height and in lower belt of terai in winter season.
Required instrument:
1) Drum
2) Bucket
3) Scissors
4) Stoves
5) Plastic sheet
6) Straw
7) Plastic bag
8) Mushroom seed
Cultivation process:
For production of oyster mushroom characteristics of straw as:
Clean, yellowish colour straw should be used as the unwanted fungus may observe in the green straw.
The straw should cut up in the size of 2-3 inch. In large drum the cut straw should placed up .Wash the straw as many as time replacing water so that a clean water is observed. In the wood frame the net structure is developing out the straw should keep in it. To check out the proper moisture content, placed the straw in forearm if the moisture is observed in hand than the straw is ready to be used.
Method of production:
1) Used 12 inch*26inch or 16 inch *26 inch plastic bag,
2) One layer straw, another layer seed of mushroom is placed on plastic bag pressing by hand,
3) Opening of the plastic bag is tied up by thread,
4) Air pores should be made in plastic bag so that circulations of air take parts.
5) After 3 week white fungus structure observed in straw inside plastic bag which was placed in dark room in temperature of 22-25°c,
6) Then remove the plastic cover and placed it in the wooden frame,
7) Water should be shattered in side of straw regularly.
8) After 3 days mushroom is ready for harvesting, three times harvesting is favourable and best for mushroom production.
9) Second harvesting is done just after 7-10 days of first harvesting similarly third after 10 days of second harvesting.
10) If properly managed than 1 kg straw produce 500-600 gm of mushroom.
Different factors affect mushroom production as:
1) Insect such as flies can be controlled through spraying insecticides but not at fruiting stage of mushroom as size of mushroom decrease
2) Black, Blue fungus if observed the straw content with bag should be buried up.
3) Proper ventilation should be maintained as proper fruiting observed.

It’s a great doubt which type of the resistance variety does the plant breeder selected. There are two type of the resistance as vertical resistance and horizontal resistance variety .In the discussion the vertical resistance variety are governed by single gene whereas horizontal resistance variety is governed by the poly gene .The horizontal resistance decrease the rate of infection whereas vertical resistance decrease the initial amount of inoculums. Horizontal resistance is suitable for the small space governed the quantitative traits whereas the vertical resistance is suitable for the large area governed the qualitative traits. Horizontal resistance is mostly affected by the environmental condition whereas it‘s differ for the vertical resistance varieties. As for the development for the vertical resistance large number for the breeders required as it ’ s cover the huge ranges ,it’s expensive and unstable than that of horizontal resistance .But as its cover huge range of environment for our country the vertical resistance may be efficient . But most of the third world country depends on the developed country for the resistance variety which increases the dependency rate of the farmer with the foreign efforts .There may be development of the new races of the pathogen to resist the resistive so there should be research after development of resistance variety. So it’s time to think about how to uplift the local breed through incorporating the resistance gene than totally and haphazardly depend in other country based on the resistance and high yielding variety.

 

                                                       Abstract

A resistance variety against the sclerotina blight has been studied in different set of research in different solanaceous crop etc. The crop resistance can build of by incubating new pathogen races through both genetic and biotechnological approaches. The studied also based in taxonomy as it may also play essential potential sources of disease resistant germplasm for cultivar improvement. for  this as an empirical test of prediction by associating resistance to white mold [caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary] to diverse potato (Solanum spp.) taxonomies and biogeography, using 144 accessions of 34 wild relatives of potato in Solanum sections Petota and Etuberosum has been performed. As the new pathogen incubation can increase the resistivity of plant, the test the efficiency of the Bacillus subtilis strain and its metabolites against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in all stages of its cycle has been done. From the review on there it has been concluded that different resistance of white mold can done by crossing line .The taxonomy factor doesn’t affect the genetic quality and resistivity of plant. This study show the B. subtilis as a bio control agent applying different strategies to control the pathogen and also the hipensensitive plant reaction in some case.

Key words: germplasm, taxonomy, biological agent, hipensensitive

Reference:

  • ErcolanaMr,Sanseverinow,Carl.p,Ferriell,Frusciantel,2012 Genetic and genomic approaches for R gene mediated disease resistance in tomato: retrospect and prospects
  • Shelley H. Jansky, Reinhard Simon, and David M. Spooner,2006 A Test of Taxonomic Predictivity: Resistance to White Mold in Wild Relatives of Cultivated Potato
  • Fernando P. Monteiro1, Larissa C. Ferreira1, Leandro P. Pacheco& Paulo E. Souza1,2013 Antagonism of Bacillus subtilis Against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Lactuca sativa  from vol5  journal of agricultural science